What are Cover Crops?
Cover crops are fast growing plants, usually grains, legumes or grasses, that are utilized by farmers and gardeners for one or more of their beneficial qualities and not usually intended as food crops. These crops are usually worked into the soil or removed before they set seed. The use of cover crops has taken place since ancient times. Over 2500 years ago the ancient Japanese and Chinese noticed that many crops grew and produced better when following the growth of certain plants. This practice continued with the ancient Greeks and Romans and continues up to the present.
- Weed Control: Because of their fast-growing nature, cover crops are often able to out-compete weeds for resources like water, light, and nutrients. In some cases this competition suppresses weeds to a manageable level. In other cases it stops weed growth altogether. When used in this manner, they are referred to as "smother crops."
- Disease and Pest Control: When used as part of a healthy crop rotation, cover crop plants displace disease organisms by replacing their preferred hosts. The same can be said for their ability to prevent insect pests. Weeds often harbor insects that prey upon garden plants. By suppressing weed growth, cover crops can suppress pest insect populations as well.
- Soil Flora and Fauna: Some of the best know benefits of cover crops are their effects on the soil. When cover crops decay and leave behind organic matter, they act as a food source for earthworms and beneficial soil microorganism. Increased diversity of soil life usually leads to healthier soil and therefore healthier plants.
- Physical Effects: Many cover crops, like buckwheat, oats, and crimson clover have very fine roots that are able to penetrate tough soils. They loosen the hard soil as they penetrate and when the roots die they leave behind looser soil and organic matter. When cover crops are incorporated into the soil, their decay provides organic matter that lighten soil, improves its texture and aeration, and can equilibrate its water holding capacity.
- Nutrients: Cover crops are often referred to as "green manures". This is because, like manure, they add organic matter to the soil. But, also like manure, they can increase the fertility of soil. The humus that they add to soil helps hold nitrogen for plants to utilize and prevents it from leaching away. Some cover crops are legumes, like peas, and have the ability to, with the help from soil microorganisms called Rhizobium, take nitrogen from the air and turn it into a form that plants can use as food. Some others, like buckwheat, are adept at gathering phosphorus from the soil and making it available to other plants upon their decomposition. These two nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus, are major contributors to plant health and production and are also often added as fertilizer.
Our Planting Tips:
Cover crops are easy, fast growing plants that anyone can grow. Cultivate the soil to a depth of about 1 inch and rake out any large debris or weeds. Check your seed packet for the recommended planting depth. Cover crops can usually be scattered evenly and it is unnecessary to sow careful rows or thin crowded plants. After sowing, tamp down the soil lightly to create good contact between seed and soil. Water immediately after sowing and keep the area moist until your plants emerge. After establishment, most cover crops require minimal additional water.
Our cover crop seed packets are available in the outside shop, pick up a few today and get planting! Questions? Stop in today and be sure not to miss our Sheet Mulching and Cover Crop Demo led by Mercy on October 17th! RSVP today!
Excerpts of this article are take from Botanical Interests, our seed supplier.